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Many athletes I work with ask me about taking probiotic supplements. But are they really necessary? We’ll get into that, but first let me explain what probiotics are.
We are all born with a collection of microbes, or microscopic organisms, which include bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, archaea, and microscopic animals. These microbes are our first line of defense against invading germs. We have certain species of these bacteria living in our mouth, skin, nose, and gut. Over the last several years, much of the microbe research has been focused on the role that our gut microbiome (collection of these microbes) plays in our overall health – the results are fascinating! Of all the parts of our body, the most important and complex habitat of microbes is in our gut – the live bacteria in our guts are known as probiotics.
Probiotics are friendly gut bacteria that keep our gastrointestinal tract and our gut microflora healthy and happy. Their functions include converting fiber into short chain fatty acids, synthesizing certain vitamins, and supporting a healthy immune system (Clemente et al. 2012). Other research suggests that a healthy microbiota population may decrease the risk of allergies (Round et al. 2009), the behavioral symptoms of autism (Vuong et al. 2017), and the symptoms associated with digestive disorders, such as Crohn’s disease and inflammatory bowel disease (Spor et al. 2011).
Eating and taking probiotic supplements can help increase the number of beneficial bacteria in your gut. Foods that contain natural probiotics include fermented vegetables, such as kimchi and sauerkraut, fermented soybeans, such as miso and tempeh, fermented tea, called kombucha, and kefir and yogurt with live, active cultures. Probiotics can also be purchased and taken as a dietary supplement.
Now, we are back to our question – should athletes take a probiotic supplement? The answer is, it depends! Heavy exercise, especially endurance type exercise is associated with an increased risk of upper respiratory infections (URI), as well as gastrointestinal (GI) tract symptoms, such as bloating, nausea, and diarrhea (Pugh et al. 2018). Several studies investigating the effect of probiotic supplements on the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes have shown promising results (Pyne et al, 2015). In one study, athletes who were administered a probiotic supplement for one month reported less than half the number of days of respiratory symptoms than the placebo group. Illness severity was also lower for episodes occurring during the supplementation period (Cox et al. 2010). Another study in which 84 active individuals consumed either a probiotic or placebo supplement for 16 weeks showed that subjects in the probiotic group had substantially fewer upper respiratory illnesses with 36% fewer subjects reporting illness compared with the control group (Gleeson et al. 2011).
In a 2015 study, researchers found that subjects (mice) with a greater diversity of intestinal flora lasted longer in swim-to-exhaustion tests, and the mice also produced a greater amount of antioxidant enzymes that decrease the physiological stresses associated with intense physical activity (Hsu et al. 2015). Another study on highly trained men found that supplementation with probiotics for 14 weeks decreased markers for impaired gut barriers, decreased inflammatory markers, and decreased oxidative stress markers (Lamprecht et al. 2012).
During strenuous activity, bad bacteria can leak from the gut into the bloodstream to trigger inflammation and raise core temperatures, which reduces the body’s tolerance to hot and humid environments. Probiotics can improve the health of the gut lining to reduce leakage and control inflammation. In one study, researchers found that probiotics helped runners perform better on a treadmill in 95-degree heat. Participants in this study who took probiotics were able to exercise longer than the subjects who did not take the supplements (Shing et al. 2014).
Based on the comprehensive research on gut health, all athletes should increase their intake of food sources containing probiotics. In addition, these types of athletes should consider adding in a high-quality probiotic supplement:
If you need more information on probiotic supplementation or on which product to buy, do not hesitate to reach out at Allison@altnutrition.net.
Clemente, J. C., Ursell, L. K., Parfrey, L. W., & Knight, R. (2012). The impact of the gut microbiota on human health: an integrative view. Cell, 148(6), 1258-1270.
Cox, A. J., Pyne, D. B., Saunders, P. U., & Fricker, P. A. (2010). Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(4), 222-226.
Gleeson, M., Bishop, N. C., Oliveira, M., & Tauler, P. (2011). Daily probiotic’s (Lactobacillus casei Shirota) reduction of infection incidence in athletes. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 21(1), 55-64.
Hill, C., Guarner, F., Reid, G., Gibson, G. R., Merenstein, D. J., Pot, B., ... & Calder, P. C. (2014). Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 11(8), 506.
Hsu, Y. J., Chiu, C. C., Li, Y. P., Huang, W. C., Te Huang, Y., Huang, C. C., & Chuang, H. L. (2015). Effect of intestinal microbiota on exercise performance in mice. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(2), 552-558.
Lamprecht, M., Bogner, S., Schippinger, G., Steinbauer, K., Fankhauser, F., Hallstroem, S., ... & Greilberger, J. F. (2012). Probiotic supplementation affects markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation, and inflammation in trained men; a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1), 45.
Pugh, J., Kirk, B., Fearn, R., Morton, J., & Close, G. (2018). Prevalence, Severity and Potential Nutritional Causes of Gastrointestinal Symptoms during a Marathon in Recreational Runners. Nutrients, 10(7), 811.
Pyne, D. B., West, N. P., Cox, A. J., & Cripps, A. W. (2015). Probiotics supplementation for athletes–clinical and physiological effects. European journal of sport science, 15(1), 63-72.
Round, J. L., & Mazmanian, S. K. (2009). The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease. Nature reviews immunology, 9(5), 313.
Shing, C. M., Peake, J. M., Lim, C. L., Briskey, D., Walsh, N. P., Fortes, M. B., ... & Vitetta, L. (2014). Effects of probiotics supplementation on gastrointestinal permeability, inflammation and exercise performance in the heat. European journal of applied physiology, 114(1), 93-103.
Spor, A., Koren, O., & Ley, R. (2011). Unravelling the effects of the environment and host genotype on the gut microbiome. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 9(4), 279.
Vuong, H. E., & Hsiao, E. Y. (2017). Emerging roles for the gut microbiome in autism spectrum disorder. Biological psychiatry, 81(5), 411-423.
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Concussions, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), are common among athletes, especially within high risk sports such as wrestling, American football, ice hockey, soccer, and basketball (Zuckerman et al. 2015). There are preventable measures that organizations and athletes have implemented, such as use of more advanced equipment, tighter rules and regulations, and more comprehensive athlete education. However, concussion rates continue to rise, which may be the result of increased public awareness, subsequently increasing the incidence of diagnosed concussions. In fact, the incidence on concussions among high school athletes has increased by 4.2-fold over an 11-year consecutive period beginning in 1998 (Lincoln et al. 2011).
Due to the increased awareness and the negative effects resulting from repeated brain injuries, possible treatment modalities have become an increased area of interest among researchers and health professionals. Unfortunately, to date, there have not been any universally accepted treatments for concussions, besides complete rest, with recent data even questioning the need for strict physical rest post-concussion (Leddy et al. 2016). What about the possibility of using nutrition and dietary supplements in treating brain injuries? To date, the research is limited to preclinical and animal model studies, with little to no evidence showing consistent benefits in humans (Trojian et al. 2017). There are, however, some human trials with severe traumatic brain injury showing potential positive results. The most common dietary supplements studied for the prevention and treatment of brain injuries include: omega-3 fatty acids, creatine, curcumin, resveratrol, melatonin, and a few specific vitamins.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
There have been several animal studies investigating the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly DHA or docosahexaenoic acid, in the treatment and prevention of concussions. DHA, along with EPA or eicosapentaenoic acid, are long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, found primarily in marine sources, such as fish and algae. DHA is recognized as being essential for brain development and function, because it is the primary structural omega-3 fatty acid present in the brain (Barrett et al. 2014). Because of DHA’s important structural and functional roles in the brain, consumption has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive function, including protection from any structural damage resulting from a TBI (Mills et al. 2011). It has been shown that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids before a concussion can reduce markers of brain injury and cell death (Mills et al. 2011) and that supplementing after a concussion can decrease the amount of injury the brain sustains (Bailes et al. 2010). Unfortunately, at this time there is no confirmed protocol for DHA supplementation, due to limited evidence from human studies. However, one study with American football players showed that supplementation with 2 grams of DHA daily reduced levels of the serum biomarker neurofilament light (NF-L) (Oliver et al. 2016), a marker of brain damage (Oliver et al. 2018). Although there is no formal protocol at this time, many organizations are recommending that all athletes participating in contact sports receive omega-3 fatty acids as part of concussion prevention and recovery process.
Creatine supplementation is most well known for the role in improving muscle mass growth and power; however, has recently come up in studies looking at the role in concussion treatment. Creatine is naturally found in the human brain. In the days following a concussion, reduced levels of creatine have been documented, coinciding with reduced levels of cerebral energy metabolism markers in the period following the concussion (Vagnozzi et al. 2013). Two human-based studies using creatine supplementation in children after sustaining a TBI showed that compared with the control group, the children who were supplemented with creatine had significantly improved cognition, communication, self-care, personality, and behavior (Sakellaris et al. 2006) and significantly decreased headaches, dizziness, and fatigue (Sakellaris et al. 2008). Based on these studies, creatine shows promise in the treatment of concussions; however, there is not a consensus on the amount or specific protocol at this time.
Curcumin is the flavonoid compound found in turmeric; the popular Indian spice that has become well known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Flavonoids, curcumin in particular, may exert an array of neuroprotective actions within the brain, including protection of neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins (Mendes et al. 2014); decrease neuroinflammation (Briones et al. 2013); and the potential to promote memory, learning, and cognitive function (Petraglia et al. 2011). Other studies have indicated that curcumin supplementation post TBI may reduce brain cell death (Zhu et al. 2014); however, because the research is currently limited to preclinical animal studies there is no recommended dose or protocol.
Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes, blueberries, red wine, and nuts, is a potent antioxidant. There have been many studies evaluating the effects of resveratrol in treating concussions due to its ability to exert neuroprotective effects in degenerative neurological diseases (Saiko et al. 2008). The two animal studies evaluating resveratrol in the treatment of concussions did find that supplementation with resveratrol after a concussion can increase brain cell survival (Lin et al. 2014), as well as improve motor performance, visual spatial memory, and behavior (Singleton et al. 2010). There has been one human trial examining the use of resveratrol treatment in boxers who have sustained a concussion; however, this data has yet to be published. Therefore, there is no current consensus on resveratrol protocol for treatment or prevention of concussions.
Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in the brain and is known to help regulate sleep cycles. This is another supplement found to have potential brain protecting properties. Animal studies have shown that melatonin can decrease brain edema and intracranial pressure as well as the permeability of the blood brain barrier (Bayir et al. 2008, Kabadi & Maher 2010). Melatonin also has shown some value in animal models as a neuroprotective agent against Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Pandi-Perumal et al. 2013). However, these neuroprotective effects have not been studied in actual human models; therefore, there is no current specific recommendation for melatonin for the treatment or prevention of concussions.
Vitamins C, E, and D
These vitamins have been studied more than others for the treatment of concussions. Vitamin E is a potent lipid peroxidation inhibitor that is present in high concentrations in human brains (Petraglia et al. 2011) and lipid peroxidation inhibitors have been reported to be effective neuroprotectants in TBI models (Hall et al. 2010). Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, transforms vitamin E to its active form. Rats treated with vitamin E post-concussion had decreased functional neurologic deficits and microscopic brain damage (Conte et al. 2004) and reduced oxidative stress (Ashbaugh & McGrew 2016). When vitamin C is supplemented with vitamin E, there is significantly less brain injury due to oxidative stress than supplementation with either vitamin E or vitamin C alone (Ishaq et al. 2013). Likewise, by itself, vitamin D has not shown great promise in the treatment of TBI; however, with the combination with progesterone, there have been some promising results. In a rodent study, the combination of progesterone and vitamin D showed significantly reduced neuronal loss and proliferation of reactive astrocytes after a TBI (Tang et al. 2013). In two human studies, the combination of progesterone and vitamin D in patients with severe TBI resulted in significantly improved Glasgow Outcome Scale scores, a better recovery rate (Aminmansour et al. 2012), and a greater ability to reduce neuroinflammation (Singleton et al. 2010). Like other supplements, vitamins C, D, and E have shown promise for the treatment of severe brain injury; however, more research is needed for their use in concussions specifically.
Aminmansour, B., Nikbakht, H., Ghorbani, A., Rezvani, M., Rahmani, P., Torkashvand, M., ... & Moradi, M. (2012). Comparison of the administration of progesterone versus progesterone and vitamin D in improvement of outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury: A randomized clinical trial with placebo group. Advanced biomedical research, 1.
Ashbaugh, A., & McGrew, C. (2016). The role of nutritional supplements in sports concussion treatment. Current sports medicine reports, 15(1), 16-19.
Bailes, J. E., & Mills, J. D. (2010). Docosahexaenoic acid reduces traumatic axonal injury in a rodent head injury model. Journal of neurotrauma, 27(9), 1617-1624.
Barrett, E. C., McBurney, M. I., & Ciappio, E. D. (2014). ω-3 fatty acid supplementation as a potential therapeutic aid for the recovery from mild traumatic brain injury/concussion. Advances in nutrition, 5(3), 268-277.
Bayir, A., Kiresi, D. A., Kara, H., Cengiz, S. L., Koçak, S., Özdinç, S., ... & Bodur, S. (2008). The effects of mannitol and melatonin on MRI findings in an animal model of traumatic brain edema. Acta Neurologica Belgica, 108(4), 149.
Briones, T. L., Woods, J., & Rogozinska, M. (2013). Decreased neuroinflammation and increased brain energy homeostasis following environmental enrichment after mild traumatic brain injury is associated with improvement in cognitive function. Acta neuropathologica communications, 1(1), 57.
Conte, V., Uryu, K., Fujimoto, S., Yao, Y., Rokach, J., Longhi, L., ... & Praticò, D. (2004). Vitamin E reduces amyloidosis and improves cognitive function in Tg2576 mice following repetitive concussive brain injury. Journal of neurochemistry, 90(3), 758-764.
Hall, E. D., Vaishnav, R. A., & Mustafa, A. G. (2010). Antioxidant therapies for traumatic brain injury. Neurotherapeutics, 7(1), 51-61.
Ishaq, G. M., Saidu, Y., Bilbis, L. S., Muhammad, S. A., Jinjir, N., & Shehu, B. B. (2013). Effects of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in the severity and management of traumatic brain injury in albino rats. Journal of neurosciences in rural practice, 4(3), 292.
Kabadi, S. V., & Maher, T. J. (2010). Posttreatment with uridine and melatonin following traumatic brain injury reduces edema in various brain regions in rats. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1199(1), 105-113.
Leddy, J. J., Baker, J. G., & Willer, B. (2016). Active rehabilitation of concussion and post-concussion syndrome. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics, 27(2), 437-454.
Lin, C. J., Chen, T. H., Yang, L. Y., & Shih, C. M. (2014). Resveratrol protects astrocytes against traumatic brain injury through inhibiting apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Cell death & disease, 5(3), e1147.
Lincoln, A. E., Caswell, S. V., Almquist, J. L., Dunn, R. E., Norris, J. B., & Hinton, R. Y. (2011). Trends in concussion incidence in high school sports: a prospective 11-year study. The American journal of sports medicine, 39(5), 958-963.
Mendes Arent, A., Souza, L. F. D., Walz, R., & Dafre, A. L. (2014). Perspectives on molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant strategies in traumatic brain injury. BioMed research international, 2014.
Mills, J. D., Hadley, K., & Bailes, J. E. (2011). Dietary supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgery, 68(2), 474-481.
Oliver, J. M., Jones, M. T., Kirk, K. M., Gable, D. A., Repshas, J. T., Johnson, T. A., ... & Zetterberg, H. (2016). Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on a Biomarker of Head Trauma in American Football. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 48(6), 974-982.
Oliver, J. M., Anzalone, A. J., & Turner, S. M. (2018). Protection before impact: the potential neuroprotective role of nutritional supplementation in sports-related head trauma. Sports medicine, 1-14.
Pandi-Perumal, S. R., BaHammam, A. S., Brown, G. M., Spence, D. W., Bharti, V. K., Kaur, C., ... & Cardinali, D. P. (2013). Melatonin antioxidative defense: therapeutical implications for aging and neurodegenerative processes. Neurotoxicity research, 23(3), 267-300.
Petraglia, A. L., Winkler, E. A., & Bailes, J. E. (2011). Stuck at the bench: Potential natural neuroprotective compounds for concussion. Surgical neurology international, 2.
Saiko, P., Szakmary, A., Jaeger, W., & Szekeres, T. (2008). Resveratrol and its analogs: defense against cancer, coronary disease and neurodegenerative maladies or just a fad?. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 658(1), 68-94.
Sakellaris, G., Kotsiou, M., Tamiolaki, M., Kalostos, G., Tsapaki, E., Spanaki, M., ... & Evangeliou, A. (2006). Prevention of complications related to traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents with creatine administration: an open label randomized pilot study. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 61(2), 322-329.
Sakellaris, George, George Nasis, Maria Kotsiou, Maria Tamiolaki, Giorgos Charissis, and Athanasios Evangeliou. "Prevention of traumatic headache, dizziness and fatigue with creatine administration. A pilot study." Acta paediatrica 97, no. 1 (2008): 31-34.
Singleton, R. H., Yan, H. Q., Fellows-Mayle, W., & Dixon, C. E. (2010). Resveratrol attenuates behavioral impairments and reduces cortical and hippocampal loss in a rat controlled cortical impact model of traumatic brain injury. Journal of neurotrauma, 27(6), 1091-1099.
Tang, H., Hua, F., Wang, J., Sayeed, I., Wang, X., Chen, Z., ... & Stein, D. G. (2013). Progesterone and vitamin D: Improvement after traumatic brain injury in middle-aged rats. Hormones and behavior, 64(3), 527-538.
Trojian, T. H., Wang, D. H., & Leddy, J. J. (2017). Nutritional supplements for the treatment and prevention of sports-related concussion—evidence still lacking. Current sports medicine reports, 16(4), 247-255.
Vagnozzi, R., Signoretti, S., Floris, R., Marziali, S., Manara, M., Amorini, A. M., ... & Lazzarino, G. (2013). Decrease in N-acetylaspartate following concussion may be coupled to decrease in creatine. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation, 28(4), 284-292.
Zhu, H. T., Bian, C., Yuan, J. C., Chu, W. H., Xiang, X., Chen, F., ... & Lin, J. K. (2014). Curcumin attenuates acute inflammatory injury by inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway in experimental traumatic brain injury. Journal of neuroinflammation, 11(1), 59.
Zuckerman, S. L., Kerr, Z. Y., Yengo-Kahn, A., Wasserman, E., Covassin, T., & Solomon, G. S. (2015). Epidemiology of sports-related concussion in NCAA athletes from 2009-2010 to 2013-2014: incidence, recurrence, and mechanisms. The American journal of sports medicine, 43(11), 2654-2662.
What is Collagen?
Collagen is the body’s most abundant protein (made up of amino-acids glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, and arginine) and is one of the most important building blocks, as it gives structure to our hair, skin, nails, bones, ligaments and tendons. Collagen is the protein that provides cohesion, elasticity and regeneration of all the connective tissues in our body. In essence, it is the glue that holds everything together, it strengthens various structures in our body, and supports the integrity of our skin. There are more than 16 different types of collagen, although about 80-90% of the collagen in our body is one of three different types – Type I, II, and III.
Type I collagen is extremely strong and forms the primary component of tendons, the connective tissue that links muscles and bones. Type I also helps to strengthen and support our bones. Type II collagen is the major protein in cartilage, the tough connective tissue found in our nose, ears and all the joints throughout our body. Type II collagen fibrils are smaller than type I fibrils and form random orientations in a gelatinous matrix of protein-carbohydrate complexes - these fibrils help give cartilage its strength and resiliency. Type III collagen is found in arterial walls, our skin, and in the intestines. It is produced more rapidly than type I collagen and is used to seal up damaged skin in response to injury. Once a wound has time to heal, type III collagen fibers will gradually be replaced with type I fibers to form hard scar tissue.
What Types of Collagen Supplements are There?
As you can see, collagen is an extremely important protein in our bodies; which is why companies have manufactured collagen supplements. In fact, there are a couple different ways you can supplement collagen:
Vitamin C, an essential vitamin and strong antioxidant, is becoming well known for its critical role in collagen formation, thanks to Keith Barr, PhD, and his research team at the Functional Molecular Biology Laboratory at UC Davis. Dr. Barr and his team found that the combination of gelatin and vitamin C promotes the body’s optimal ability to produce collagen. They recommend combining 15 grams of gelatin with 50 mg of vitamin C one hour before a short loading exercise and six hours apart from other training sessions to maximize its potential impact.
Why Supplement with Collagen?
Collagen and gelatin supplementation is happening all over the country in collegiate and professional sports. Non-athletes are also using collagen to promote healthy hair, skins, and nails; as well as to decrease joint pain and for bone support. As we age, and the more stress we put on our body, the greater the impact on collagen production. Decreases in collagen production leads to:
For athletes specifically, studies have indicated that adequate collagen production may help to:
Getting collagen in a balanced diet can help our bodies regenerate what’s been lost or broken down. To ensure your body is making collagen you will want to eat protein-rich foods, like beef, chicken, fish, beans, eggs and dairy products; in combination with vitamin C rich foods, like citrus fruits, red and green peppers, tomatoes, broccoli and greens. If you’re an elite athlete, an every day runner, or even someone trying to ward off wrinkles supplementing with collagen or gelatin + vitamin C is a great option, especially if you are not eating enough protein-rich foods.
Shoulders, M. D., & Raines, R. T. (2009). Collagen structure and stability. Annual review of biochemistry, 78, 929-958.
Shaw, G., Lee-Barthel, A., Ross, M. L., Wang, B., & Baar, K. (2016). Vitamin C–enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 105(1), 136-143.
Fasman, G. D., & Sober, H. A. (Eds.). (1976). Handbook of biochemistry and molecular biology (Vol. 1, pp. 176-181). Cleveland: CRC press.
Zdzieblik, D., Oesser, S., Gollhofer, A., & König, D. (2017). Improvement of activity-related knee joint discomfort following supplementation of specific collagen peptides. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 42(6), 588-595.
Allison Tropf, MS, RD, CSSD
Allison is a Sports Dietitian in Michigan. She enjoys helping others reach their nutrition and fitness goals through reliable and trustworthy recommendations.
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